Acid

Acid, noun: Acids make up approximately 5% of green coffee. Chlorogenic acids make up the lion’s share. As polyphenols, chlorogenic acids, together with caffeic acid, belong to the secondary phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. When roasting, up to a third of the acids are broken down. They stimulate digestion. And they are essential for the development of the coffee’s taste. The longer the roasting, the more (undesirable) acids are broken down. (see also: chlorogenic acid)

Alkaloid

Alkaloid, noun: An ingredient in coffee: Compound containing nitrogen that is found in many plants. This includes caffeine at a ratio of 0.8 to 2.5%. In addition, coffee also includes low amounts of trigonelline, theobromine and theophylline. Roasting breaks down 75% of trigonelline, forming the vitamin niacin (nicotinic acid). One cup of coffee covers approximately one tenth of an adult’s daily requirement of niacin.

Aroma

Aroma, Subst., n, auch Aromastoffe. Synonym für Geschmack. Kaffee ist mit über 800 Aromen eines der komplexesten Naturprodukte (Wein hat nur 400 Aromen). Sie reichen von dunkler Schokolade, gebrannten Erdnüssen bis zu fruchtigen Waldbeeren – und zwar ohne künstliche Zusätze. Beeinflussende Faktoren:

Kaffeesorte (s. Arabica, s. Robusta), Anbauland, Anbaugebiet mit Terroir/Bodenbeschaffenheit und Klima, Anbauweise, bio oder konventionell, Ernteverfahren, Verarbeitung, Zubereitungsart mit Mahlgrad und Wasserhärte.

Caffeine

Caffeine, noun: An alkaloid and an important component of coffee as well as tea, guarana and cacao. It has a stimulating effect and increases one’s ability to concentrate. Note: In the journal “Science,” researchers report that the concentration of caffeine in the nectar of some varieties of coffee, those that correspond to a cup of instant coffee, doesn’t seem to bother bees in small doses, but rather gives them a helping hand. In the (bee) group that contained caffeine, three times as many bees still remembered the fragrance learned after a day. After three days, it was still twice as many bees.

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate, noun: An ingredient in coffee. Together with fat and protein, they are an essential component of our diet. They are a product of photosynthesis in plants. They constitute 30-40% of coffee beans. Over the course of the roasting, carbohydrates undergo significant changes. The sugars almost completely disappear. The insoluble polysaccharides from the cellular walls of the coffee bean then form the spent coffee grounds, which are left over.

Chlorogenic acid

Chlorogenic acid, noun: An ingredient in coffee. Also occurs in potatoes, artichokes, nettles, etc. It is regarded as hard on the stomach. In our slow, gentle roasting process from 10-15 minutes at just under 400°F the acids are sharply broken down. Normal roasting process – 3-4 minutes at high temperatures – do not have this effect.

Flavor

Flavor, noun (also flavoring): Synonym for taste. Coffee is one of the most complex natural products with over 800 flavors (wine has only 400 flavors). They extend from dark chocolate, roasted peanuts to fruity wild berries – and all without any artificial additives. Influencing factors:

Coffee variant (see Arabica, Robusta), coffee-producing countries, cultivation area including the terroir/soil conditions and climate, type of cultivation (organic or conventional), harvesting procedure, processing, method of preparation including grinding level and water hardness.

Fruit acid

Fruit acid, noun: Collective term for the acids present in fruit. Since coffee is a fruit – coffee berries – it also contains them incidentally, fruit acid is only one of coffee’s over 1000 ingredients). The acids, such as chlorogenic acid, which are undesirable because they are hard on the stomach, are broken down via long and gentle roasting (>10 minutes) at just under 400°F. This way, only fine, palate-tickling acids remain. (see also: roasting)

Ingredient

Ingredient, noun: Coffee has more than 1000 ingredients, 400 of which have not yet been identified. Depending on the type of coffee plant and cultivation area their composition can vary considerably. The most important ingredients are: carbohydrates, lipids, water, acids, alkaloids, minerals, proteins and flavorings, as well as flavors – of which 100 have likewise not yet been identified. That’s why coffee has not yet been able to be synthetically produced.

Lipids

Lipids, noun: Ingredient in coffee. Term for fats. Overall, the lipid content of green coffee is between 10-13%, whereby Arabicas contain more lipids than Robustas. Since lipids have very low solubility in water, they are hardly present in a cup of coffee or espresso.

Encyclopedia

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