Roasting, noun: The last and most important step in refining. Each coffee bean consists of between 300,000 to 400,000 cells. When heated, very complex chemical reactions take place. Sugars and amino acids are reconstituted such that approximately 1000 flavors or chemical compounds are newly formed in each and every cell during the roasting process. The longer and gentler the roasting is, the more developed the flavors become. It’s not difficult to imagine what happens if you proceed without care and expertise. We roast our coffees in drum roasters for at least 11 minutes. The standard for industrial coffee is 2-3 minutes at high temperatures.