Organic cultivation (also called organic farming): Companion planting with shade trees (casuarina /yam tree, banana, papaya, etc.), mostly laid out in small coffee gardens with 10-30 trees. The consequences: Water conservation, healthy soil and pest-resistant plants. No pesticides, chemical fertilizers or genetic engineering are used. The coffee is harvested by hand; only truly ripe beans are picked (picking) – in contrast to stripping used in industrial coffee. Each farmer is strictly monitored in order to be able to guarantee organic cultivation. Organic certifications are expensive, which, in addition to the higher costs for the cultivation and harvest, is the reason behind the higher price for organic coffee. Despite this, its popularity continues to spread, in particular if it’s also certified fair trade like Mount Hagen.