Biodynamic

Biodynamic, adj. (also referred to as biodynamic cultivation or Demeter): Strictest form of organic cultivation. Based on anthroposophic principles of Rudolf Steiner, “Agriculture Course” (1924/25). The earth and every agricultural operation is viewed as a living organism that should contain as many complementary and supporting plant and animal species as possible. Keeping ruminants, mostly cattle, is obligatory since their manure is essential to the so-called preparations (natural fertilizer and pesticide made specially from a mix of herbs, ash, horn silica, manure, etc.). The use of other, non-biodynamic raw and auxiliary materials is virtually prohibited. Sowing/planting, maintenance and harvest are determined based on the phases of the moon and/or specific times of day. Biodynamic cultivation is considered the oldest and most sustainable means of organic cultivation and is organized throughout the world in the Demeter Association. (see: www.demeter-usa.org)

Fair trade

Fair trade, noun: A strategy for fighting poverty: Farmers in Africa, Latin America and Asia can effectively improve their living and working conditions through fair trade standards – guaranteed minimum prices significantly higher than the world market level plus fixed premium payments and compliance with social and environmental criteria. They get a stable income, access to the world market and long-term and direct trade relations. In addition, they receive support with building schools, medical care, advancing women, expanding local infrastructure and many other social projects. Certification with the TransFair seal, which guarantees compliance with the standards and makes the products immediately recognizable to consumers. Originated through the fair trade movement in the ’60s and ’70s, where Nicaraguan coffee was sold by activists in ‘third world shops,’ churches, etc. Through the fair trade seal, valid throughout the world, fair trade has received an enormous boom over the past ten years. In 2012 over 9.322 tons of certified fair trade coffee were sold in Germany. That’s 6% more than in 2011 and corresponds to a market share of 2.2% for fair trade coffee. see:

www.fairtrade-deutschland.de

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