Acid

Acid, noun: Acids make up approximately 5% of green coffee. Chlorogenic acids make up the lion’s share. As polyphenols, chlorogenic acids, together with caffeic acid, belong to the secondary phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. When roasting, up to a third of the acids are broken down. They stimulate digestion. And they are essential for the development of the coffee’s taste. The longer the roasting, the more (undesirable) acids are broken down. (see also: chlorogenic acid)

Aeropress

AeroPress, noun: Method of preparing filter coffee in a cup. Here, a small paper filter is rinsed out with water and inserted in the plexiglass cylinder. Ground coffee is then put in the cylinder on top of the filter and hot water is poured over the ground coffee. After steeping for 90 seconds, the cylinder is placed on a cup and pushed through using the accompanying plunger. The resulting coffee is very intense and robust. It’s so popular among connoisseurs that there is even a World AeroPress Championship (WAC).

Alkaloid

Alkaloid, noun: An ingredient in coffee: Compound containing nitrogen that is found in many plants. This includes caffeine at a ratio of 0.8 to 2.5%. In addition, coffee also includes low amounts of trigonelline, theobromine and theophylline. Roasting breaks down 75% of trigonelline, forming the vitamin niacin (nicotinic acid). One cup of coffee covers approximately one tenth of an adult’s daily requirement of niacin.

Arabica

Arabica, noun: Coffee variant. The most important coffee variant (followed by Robusta) with approximately 55% of the world’s production. Cultivated at high altitudes, at elevations of at least 3000 feet above sea level. It is maintained and harvested exclusively by hand. The beans have an elongated shape with an S-shaped notch, less caffeine than Robusta, but in exchange more diverse flavors, from asparagus to nut. Arabica coffee is mostly prepared according to the wet method (washed, lavado). Brazilian naturals are the only Arabicas that are cultivated at lower elevations and are prepared semi-washed/semi-lavado or semi-dry.

Aroma

Aroma, Subst., n, auch Aromastoffe. Synonym für Geschmack. Kaffee ist mit über 800 Aromen eines der komplexesten Naturprodukte (Wein hat nur 400 Aromen). Sie reichen von dunkler Schokolade, gebrannten Erdnüssen bis zu fruchtigen Waldbeeren – und zwar ohne künstliche Zusätze. Beeinflussende Faktoren:

Kaffeesorte (s. Arabica, s. Robusta), Anbauland, Anbaugebiet mit Terroir/Bodenbeschaffenheit und Klima, Anbauweise, bio oder konventionell, Ernteverfahren, Verarbeitung, Zubereitungsart mit Mahlgrad und Wasserhärte.

Barista

Barista, noun: Italian for bartender, often used in English to refer to an “artist” with an espresso machine that can prepare espresso perfectly and decorate it with delight. In “Brew Bars” very good (pure) filter coffee is experiencing a major revival.

Bean

Bean, noun (also coffee bean): Strictly speaking, coffee beans are not beans, but rather the seed or seeds of the coffee berry (fruit of the coffee plant). They are located in the red pulp with their flattened sides facing each other. Each seed (bean) has a thin silvery skin, which is covered by a parchment skin, covered by a layer of pectin, which in turn is surrounded by the pulp. Before the berry becomes a coffee bean, all of that needs to be carefully removed. (see also: processing.) A mature coffee tree produces approximately 2.2-4.4 lbs. of beans per year.

Biodynamic

Biodynamic, adj. (also referred to as biodynamic cultivation or Demeter): Strictest form of organic cultivation. Based on anthroposophic principles of Rudolf Steiner, “Agriculture Course” (1924/25). The earth and every agricultural operation is viewed as a living organism that should contain as many complementary and supporting plant and animal species as possible. Keeping ruminants, mostly cattle, is obligatory since their manure is essential to the so-called preparations (natural fertilizer and pesticide made specially from a mix of herbs, ash, horn silica, manure, etc.). The use of other, non-biodynamic raw and auxiliary materials is virtually prohibited. Sowing/planting, maintenance and harvest are determined based on the phases of the moon and/or specific times of day. Biodynamic cultivation is considered the oldest and most sustainable means of organic cultivation and is organized throughout the world in the Demeter Association. (see: www.demeter-usa.org)

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