Biodynamic, adj. (also referred to as biodynamic cultivation or Demeter): Strictest form of organic cultivation. Based on anthroposophic principles of Rudolf Steiner, “Agriculture Course” (1924/25). The earth and every agricultural operation is viewed as a living organism that should contain as many complementary and supporting plant and animal species as possible. Keeping ruminants, mostly cattle, is obligatory since their manure is essential to the so-called preparations (natural fertilizer and pesticide made specially from a mix of herbs, ash, horn silica, manure, etc.). The use of other, non-biodynamic raw and auxiliary materials is virtually prohibited. Sowing/planting, maintenance and harvest are determined based on the phases of the moon and/or specific times of day. Biodynamic cultivation is considered the oldest and most sustainable means of organic cultivation and is organized throughout the world in the Demeter Association. (see: